The Role of Scoring Systems and Urine Dipstick in Prediction of Rhabdomyolysis-induced Acute Kidney Injury: a Systematic Review
Introduction. During the past decade, using serum biomarkers and clinical decision rules for early prediction of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has received much attention from researchers. This study aimed to broadly review the value of scoring systems and urine dipstick in prediction of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.
Materials and Methods. The study was designed based on the guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement. Search was done in electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar by 2 independent reviewers. Studies evaluating AKI risk factors in rhabdomyolysis patients with the aim of developing a scoring model as well as those assessing the role of urine dipstick in these patients were included.
Results. Of the 5997 articles found, 143 were potentially relevant studies. After studying their full texts, 6 articles were entered into the systematic review. Two studies had developed or validated scoring systems of the "rule of thumb," and the AKI index, and the Mangled Extremity Severity Score. Four studies were on the predictive value of urine dipstick in risk prediction of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI, with favorable results.Conclusions. The findings of this systematic review showed that based on the available resources, using the prediction rules and urine dipstick could be considered as valuable screening tools for detection of patients at risk for AKI following rhabdomyolysis. Yet, the external validity of the mentioned tools should be assessed before their general application in routine practice.