Screening for Asymptomatic Kidney Disease in High-Risk Population of Urmia, Iran

Authors

  • Ali Ghafari Nephro-Urology Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Elham Ahmadnezhad Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Nariman Sepehrvand Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Sanaz Hatami Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Saber Zafarshamspoor Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Barzan Ayubian Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Rebecca Erfani Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Gelare Jafari Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Farshid Fayyaz-Jahani Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

Introduction. Screening programs for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are deemed to be cost effective only when they are limited to high-risk groups. We screened a sample of high-risk population of Urima, Iran.

Materials and Methods. As a pilot study for a national project, we enrolled 905 participants who had at least one risk factor for CKD (including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or a family history of CKD). The study population was selected from among patients with Dm or hypertension and family members of those with CKD in Urima urban area and 2 randomly selected neighbor rural areas. Urine dipstick tests were done and blood sample was obtained to detect proteinuria and measure serum creatinine concentration, respectively.

Results. A total of 607 participants (67.1%) were enrolled from rural areas and 298 (32.9%) from the urban area. The mean serum creatinine level was 1.27 ± 0.60 mg/dL. A high serum creatinine level was demonstrated in 343 participants (37.9%), and 212 (23.4%) were demonstrated to have proteinuria. There was a significant correlation between serum creatinine level and urinary protein excretion (P = .001). There were no significant differences between rural and urban subgroups in terms of proteinuria (P = .42) and serum creatinine level (P = .08).

Conclusions. The prevalence of a high creatinine level (37.9%) is so high in the high-risk population of Urmia. Our most important goal of implementing this preliminary study was to assess probable limitations and problems of performing an extensive national screening program for CKD in the future.

Author Biographies

  • Ali Ghafari, Nephro-Urology Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
    Assistabnt Professor, Department of nephrology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences
  • Elham Ahmadnezhad, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    Resident of Epidemiology, Institute for Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  • Nariman Sepehrvand, Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

    Medical Doctor, Urmia University of Medical Sciences

  • Sanaz Hatami, Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
    Medical Intern, Students' Research Cimmittee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences
  • Saber Zafarshamspoor, Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
    Medical Intern, Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences
  • Barzan Ayubian, Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
    Medical Doctor, Urmia University of Medical Sciences
  • Rebecca Erfani, Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
    Medical Doctor, Urmia University of Medical sciences
  • Gelare Jafari, Students' Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
    Medical Doctor, Urmia University of Medical Sciences

Downloads

Published

2010-09-16

Issue

Section

ORIGINAL | Kidney Diseases